Major cities and places - Moscow
Area: over 1,091 sq km
Location: European part of Russian Federation, between the Oka and the Volga Rivers, on the Moskva River.
Population: approx 10,407,000
Foundation: 1147, by Duke Yuri Dolgorukiy
City code: 495
The capital of Russia – Moscow – is the largest metropolis, political, industrial and cultural center of Russia. The history of Moscow is rich in events. Such words as : President, State Duma, Kremlin, Red Square, Bolshoiy Theatre, Tretyakovskaya Gallery, Moscow State University are well known not only to Russian people, but also to people all over the world.
Russian contrasts are more present here in Moscow than in any other city in Russia. Ancient monasteries and ultra-modern monoliths stand side by side and the new Russian millionaires and the poor pensioners walk side by side in the same streets. Moscow's streets are lined with small monolithic department stores and beautiful churches that are being restored after the vandalism of the Soviet era and the hard-line atheism. Every visitor to Moscow is irresistibly drawn to the Red Square, the historical and spiritual heart of the city, so loaded with associations and drama that it seems to embody all of Russia's triumphs and tragedies. The Kremlin, broads and glitters in the heart of Moscow. It thrills and tantalizes whenever you see its towers against the skyline or its cathedrals and palaces arrayed above the Moskva River.
Moscow has a surprisingly number of no less than five airports, which are all situated about 30 to 40km from the city centre, and 9 Railway Stations.
Only 60% of the citizens were born in Moscow. For many years people from other cities of Russia came to Moscow and started their living here.
Kremlin was created as a fortress on a territory of one of the principalities. Later it became the symbol of power and center of Russian political life. Russian tsars lived here. Even in those times when St.Petersburg was the capital of Russia, Emperors from St.Petersburg came to Moscow Kremlin to coronation. In Soviet period of Russian history Kremlin was a place where important decisions were taken. Today here’s the Cabinet of Russian President.
Red Square came into being during the reign of Ivan III at the end of the 15th century. Named after the Trinity Cathedral, the Red Square was formerly known as Trinity Square, and is believed to only have had the name change at the end of the 17th century.
The Lenin’s Mausoleum
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin the head of the All-Russia Communist Party of Bolsheviks, the head of Great October Revolution, died on January 21, 1924. on the temporary Wooden Mausoleum was constructed in a few days. It was built in a shape of a cube (the symbol of eternity) crowned with a three-story pyramid. In 1930 the present Mausoleum was erected. A stone replica of the previous one it was a stepped pyramid of cubes faced with red granite, porphyry and black Labrador.
Merchant and industrialist Pavel Michailovitch Tretyakov began to collect works of Russian painters in 1851 and this was his life’s work next 40 years. “Clash with Finnish smugglers” was the first painting of his collection which grew into a museum of national art. When Pavel Michailovitch presented his collection to the city, it contained more than 2.000 works of painting, drawing and sculpture. Nowadays, the collection contains nearly 100.000 works of art.
State Universal Department Store since ancient times was the center of market, which formed the Trading Rows. The GUM building takes up the entire East side of Red Square.
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